What Can I Claim As a Business Expense?

One of the first questions asked by a new business owner is “What can I claim as business expenses?”

Under the Income Tax Act, there is no true definition of what constitutes an allowable deduction against business or professional income. Essentially, any expense incurred directly related to the operation of your business or in direct relation to earning professional income is an allowable deduction. It would be impossible to list every deduction allowed in computing business income, because in theory, any expense incurred for the purpose of earning income is deductible. There are certain restrictions and exceptions to this guideline.

In assessing whether expenses are deductible, first apply the two basic requirements of a deductible expense:

The expense must be incurred for the purpose of earning income and;
The expense must be reasonable in the circumstance
There are some common items that are regularly deductible, such as:

Rent for office space
Telephones
Office Supplies
Wages & Benefits
Insurance
Business Memberships
Internet Access
Advertising
Promotional Items
Business Cards/Letterhead
But what about less than common expenses such as Dog food?

If you operate a pet store, dog food would be a reasonable expense. What if you own a car repair facility though? Can you justify the expenses? If the dog were on-site 24 hours per day, and free to roam the building after hours, you could argue that this is a guard dog for the purposes of protecting your business, therefore, food, vet bills and related expenses could be claimed.

In respect to automobile expenses, contrary to popular belief, you cannot claim 100% of your personal vehicle as a business expense. The personal use portion of automobile expenses must be calculated as they are not deductible. This is generally done with the assistance of a mileage log. In fact, if you do not have a mileage log to support your claim for automobile expenses, CRA can and will likely deny your claim. All expenses are then pro-rated between business and personal use. Typical vehicle related expenses can include:

License and registration fees
Fuel & Oil
Repairs & Maintenance
Insurance
Loan Interest
Lease costs
Depreciation
Most new businesses start from a home office, as such, there are a number of items that you can claim based upon the business/personal use portions, of household related expenses; these items generally include:

Utilities
Insurance
Maintenance
Mortgage Interest
Property Taxes
In similar fashion to automobile expenses, you have to prorate the costs based upon the amount of space the office occupies (generally using square footage) vs. the entire house. For example, if your house is 2,000 sq. ft., and the office occupies 100 sq. ft., you would be entitled to a deduction of 5% of the total household costs; of course, this is subject to 2 conditions:

The space must be used solely for the purposes of earning business income;
The space must be used as your principle place of business where you generally meet customers.
A fairly recent change to the Income Tax Act has added another great business deduction: Premiums paid for private health insurance plans are 100% tax deductible, whereas they used to only factor into the medical expense credit. This is a great means of giving yourself and your family ‘benefits’ with before tax dollars.

Before you decide on any claims for expenses, it is best to consult an accounting professional to be certain your claim will stand up to CRA scrutiny. The onus is on you, the taxpayer, to justify the reasonableness of any deduction.

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Business Expense & Tax Deductions – A Complete Guide on Business Expenses For Tax Deductions

You are about the “crack the code” on business expenses and tax deductions. Following this simple-to-follow and easy-to-implement information will help you get the most out of your tax deductions.

The expenses to run a trade or business are business expenses. Rent, payroll, advertising, repairs, interest, depreciation, taxes, etc. are few examples of business expenses. If the business is run to make profit and the expenses are ordinary and necessary, then these expenses qualify as deductible business expenses. Payroll expense is commonly accepted expense for most businesses and therefore it is deductible business expense.

It is necessary to distinguish the business expenses from cost of goods sold, capital expenses, and personal expenses because these expenses have special rules to decide how to figure out these expenses, and how much can be treated as deductible business expenses for a particular tax year. Let us review these expenses with some more details.

Cost of Goods Sold:

If you are in manufacturing or resale business, you need to value your inventory at the beginning and end of tax year to determine your cost of goods sold. Cost of raw materials, freight, storage, direct labor, factory overheads are the type of expenses that go into figuring cost of goods sold. Cost of goods sold is deducted from gross receipts to figure out gross profit. The expenses allocated to figure out cost of goods sold, cannot be claimed again as business expense.

For more information about tax aspects of cost of goods sold, please refer to chapter 6 of IRS Publication 334. Please refer to IRS Publication 538 on inventories.

Capital Expenses:

Capital expenses are the part of your investment in the business. Business start up costs, business assets, and improvement costs are the main types of capital expenses. Capital expenses are considered assets of business and generally their benefits are available for period more than a year. You must capitalize, rather than deduct these expenses. You may be able to recover this expense through depreciation, amortization, or depletion. These recovery methods allow you to deduct part of your cost each year.

Business start up costs: You can elect to deduct or amortize certain business start up expenses. For more information, please refer to Chapter 7 and 8 of IRS Publication 535. Advertizing, travel, and training are the examples of business start up costs.

What if your attempt to get into business fails? In that case, the costs you had before making a decision to acquire or begin a specific business are your personal and non-deductible expenses. The expenses for search or investigation of a business or investment possibility are examples of this kind of expenses. The costs you had after making a decision to attempt to acquire or begin a specific business are capital expenses and you can deduct them as capital loss.

Business Assets: Land, buildings, machinery, furniture, trucks, franchise rights, and patents are examples of business assets. You must fully capitalize these assets.

Improvements: Improvements are capital expenses if they increase the general value, or the utility value and life of the asset. New electrical wiring, lighting improvements, structural improvements etc. are examples of Improvements that can be treated as capital expense. However the repairs intended to keep the machinery in normal operation is not capital expense and you can deduct these repairs as normal business expenses.

Personal Expenses:

While recording an expense transaction in books of business, it is important to make sure that it is not personal, living, or family expenses as these are not deductible business expenses. However, if you have an expense that is used partly for personal and partly for business purpose, divide the total cost between the personal and business part. You can deduct the business part of the cost.

Business use of home and car are examples of personal expenses that can be partly treated as business expenses. You need to be very cautious and precise in treating personal expenses as business expenses as this is the area which might trigger tax audit.

If the deductible business expenses are more than income, you have a loss. There may be limits on how much of the loss you can deduct. Not-for-profits limits, At-risk limits, Passive activities etc. are some limits that decide deductible loss. Net operating loss can be used to lower taxes in other years.

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Deducting Your Employer Business Expenses

If you are an employee, you may be able to deduct your un-reimbursed work-related expenses as an itemized deduction on Schedule A. Employee business expenses are subject to the 2% of AGI limitation (see below). You can deduct un-reimbursed employee business expenses incurred in the normal course of carrying out your responsibilities as an employee.

You can deduct un-reimbursed travel expenses that you incur as an employee if you temporarily travel away from your tax home for your job. These expenses include transportation, car expenses, lodging and meals (meals are only allowed if you are traveling overnight). You can also deduct your job-related education expenses. You claim your employee business expenses on line 21 of Schedule A.

Travel expenses
Although commuting costs (travel between home and work) are not deductible, some local transportation expenses are. Deductible local transportation expenses include the ordinary and necessary expenses of going from one workplace to another. If you have an office in your home that you use as your principal place of business for your employer, you may deduct the cost of traveling between your home office and work places associated with your employment.

You may deduct the cost of traveling between your residence and a temporary work location outside of the metropolitan area where you live and normally work. If you have one or more regular work locations away from your residence, you may also deduct the cost of going between your residence and a temporary work location within your metropolitan area.

Where is your tax home?
In determining the deductibility of travel expenses when you travel outside your general work area, the location of your tax home must first be established. Your tax home is your main place of business or work, regardless of where you maintain your family home. The following factors are used to determine your main place of business or work:

The total time ordinarily spent working in each area.
The level of business activity in each area.
Whether the income from each place is significant or insignificant.
You are considered away from your tax home if you are required to be away from the general area of your tax home for longer than an ordinary workday, and you need to get sleep or rest.

What expenses are deductible?
If you are on a temporary assignment or job away from your tax home, your job expenses may or may not be deductible. A temporary assignment is one that is expected to last for one year or less, and does in fact last for one year or less. The following factors are used to determine if traveling expenses to that temporary assignment or job are deductible or not:

If the assignment has a fixed ending date (one year or less), the expenses are deductible.
If the assignment or job lasts or is expected to last indefinitely, the expenses are not deductible.
Your employee business (job) expenses can be deductible as long as they were:

Paid or incurred during the tax year.
Incurred for carrying out your job as an employee.
Ordinary and necessary business expenses.
To figure your meal expenses when traveling away from your tax home, you can use either the actual expenses incurred, or a standard rate of $46 per day. The standard rate can be higher in some cities, and you can find this information on the IRS website. Whichever method you use, tax law allows you to deduct ONLY 50% of your un-reimbursed meal expenses.

You can deduct expenses of up to $2,000 per year for attending conventions, seminars, or similar meeting held on cruise ships.

Meal and entertainment expenses
If your job requires you to entertain customers, you can deduct ordinary and necessary meals and entertainment expenses, but only if they are directly related and associated with your business.

The directly related test is met if:

The meal or entertainment takes place in a clear business setting.
The main purpose of the meal and entertainment is for the conduct of business.
You did in fact engage in business.
You had more than a general expectation of getting income or some other business benefit.
The associated test is met if:

The meal or entertainment is associated with the active conduct or your trade or business.
The meal or entertainment directly precedes or follows a substantial business discussion.
In general, you can deduct only 50% of business related meal and entertainment expenses. Therefore if you receive one bill, which includes the costs of meals, lodging, transportation, etc., you must allocate the expenses between the cost of meals and entertainment, and the cost of the other services.

If you gave away tickets to an entertainment event, you can deduct only the face value of the tickets. If you gave a customer tickets and did not accompany the customer to the event, you can treat the cost of the tickets as either an entertainment or a gift expense, whichever is to your advantage.

Business gift expenses
If the nature of your job requires you to give gifts to customers, the cost of gifts given directly or indirectly to a customer is deductible up to a maximum limit. The following rules apply to gifts:

You cannot deduct a gift of more than $25 per person (incidental costs, such as engraving on jewelry, or packaging and mailing, are not included in determining the cost of the gift).
A gift to a customer’s family member is considered an indirect gift to that customer.
If both spouses give gifts, they are treated as one taxpayer with one $25 limit per customer.
Items costing less than $4, and used for promotional purposes, such as pens, key chains, mugs, etc., with the business name clearly imprinted, are not included in the $25 limit.
An item that could be categorized as either a gift or an entertainment expense is generally considered to be an entertainment expense, and hence subject to the 50% deduction rule.

Local transportation
You can deduct the ordinary and necessary costs of business-related transportation expenses incurred within the area of your tax home. Transportation expenses include the cost of transportation by air, rail, bus, taxi, etc., and the cost of driving and maintaining your car. This following transportation costs are deductible:

Traveling from one workplace to another.
Visiting clients.
Traveling to a business meeting away from your workplace.
Traveling from home to a temporary workplace, if you have more than one regular workplace.
Commuting expenses are never deductible, and include the following:

Traveling between your home and your regular place of business.
Parking fees incurred at your regular place of business.
Traveling from a union hall where you get your assignment, to your place of work.
Car expenses
If you use your own car, van, pickup, or panel truck, for the purposes of performing your duties on your job, you can claim a deduction for the use of your vehicle. You can claim EITHER the standard mileage rate OR the actual expenses for operating your vehicle on the job.

The standard mileage rate is a rate allowed per mile for every business mile traveled. You can claim mileage at a standard rate of 51 cents per mile for each business mile traveled for the period 1/1/2011 to 6/30/2011, and 55.5 cents per mile for the period 7/1/2011 to 12/31/2011.

You cannot claim the standard rate if:

You used the car for hire (for example, as a taxi).
You operate five or more cars at the same time.
You claimed depreciation, or claimed a Section 179 deduction (see chapter 12) in an earlier year.
You are a rural mail carrier who received a qualified reimbursement.
Your actual expenses that can be deductible include the following:

The cost of lease payments.
Tires, gas, oil.
Insurance, registration fees, and licenses.
If you opt to claim your actual expenses, you must first of all ascertain your total expenses, and then divide your total expenses between business use and personal use, based on the number of miles driven for each purpose.

You can claim your business related parking fees and tolls as an additional deduction, whichever method you use.

If you are an employee, you cannot deduct any interest paid on a car loan. This applies even if the car is used 100% for business. However, if you are self-employed you can deduct the part of the interest expense that represents the business use of the car.

The cost of traveling between home and regular job is considered commuting expenses and is not deductible. If you have two workplaces, you can deduct the cost of traveling from one workplace to the other.

Business use of your home deduction
You can claim a deduction for the business use of your home if you use part of your home for your employer’s business. There are some tests that you must meet to be eligible for this deduction:

To deduct expenses for business use of the home, part of your home must be used regularly and exclusively for your employer’s business.
You cannot deduct business expenses for any part of your home that you use for both personal and business purposes.
The use of your home must be for your employer’s convenience.
You must not rent any part of your home to your employer and use the rented portion to perform services as an employee for that employer.
Deductible expenses for business use of your home include the business portion of real estate taxes, deductible mortgage interest, rent, casualty losses, utilities, insurance, depreciation, maintenance and repairs. Generally, the amount of your deduction for whole-house related expenses, like utilities, is limited to the square footage of the area you’re using for business purposes. You may not deduct expenses for lawn care in general, or for painting a room not used for business.

You must use the worksheet in Publication 587,Business Use of Your Home, to figure your deduction. You claim this deduction on line 21 of Schedule A.

(Off-the-shelf tax software will effectively bring up and complete theBusiness Use of Your Home worksheet for you)

Job-related education expenses
You may be able to deduct job-related education expenses paid during the year, as an itemized deduction on Schedule A. These expenses are also subject to the 2% of AGI limitation (see below).

To be deductible, your expenses must be job-related, and must be for education that is:

Required by your employer or by law, to keep your present salary, status, or job.
Required to maintain or improve the skills needed in your present work.
Although the above requirements may be met, no deduction will be allowed on Schedule A, if the education is:

Needed to meet the minimum education requirements for your current job or trade.
Part of a program of study that can qualify you for a new job or trade, even if you have no plans to enter that job or trade.
If you are not allowed to deduct your job-related education expenses on Schedule A, you may however, be able to deduct them of Form 1040, as a tuition and fees adjustment, or as a lifetime learning credit.

Deductible job-related education expenses include the following costs:

Tuition, books, lab fees, supplies and similar items.
Certain transportation and travel costs, including driving from work to school.
Transportation from home to school if you are regularly employed and go to school on a temporary basis.
Other educational expenses, such as costs of research and typing a paper.
Travel, meals, and lodging for overnight travel, to obtain qualified education.
You must keep proper records to prove your education expenses; otherwise the IRS will disallow them in the case of an audit.

Employer reimbursement plans
If your employer does not reimburse you for your work-related expenses, any allowable expense in excess of 2% of your adjusted gross income is fully deductible on Schedule A.

If your employer does reimburse you, the deductibility of the expense depends on the type of reimbursement plan you have. There are two types of employer reimbursement plans – an accountable plan and a non-accountable plan.

An accountable plan
Under an accountable plan, your employer’s reimbursement or allowance arrangement must require you to: (a) adequately account your expenses to your employer, and (b) return any excess reimbursement or allowance.

The rules under an accountable are as follows:

Your employer reimburses you for all the work-related expenses that you incurred, upon you accounting to your employer for all your expenditure.
Reimbursements are not taxable, and your employer should not include them in wages on your Form W-2.
You cannot claim a deduction for any amount for which you have been reimbursed.
A non-accountable plan
Under a non-accountable plan:

You do not account to your employer for the work-related expenses that you incurred.
The entire reimbursement is included as wages in box 1 of your Form W-2, and is treated as taxable income.
You figure your eligible work-related expenses on Form 2106, Employee Business Expenses, and deduct them on Schedule A.
Completing Form 2106
You must complete Form 2106 to figure your deductible work-related expenses, which include:

All your travel, car, and other local transportation expenses incurred under a non-accountable plan, whether or not you are reimbursed for them.
All other expenses for which you are reimbursed under a non-accountable plan.
Any expenses for which you are not reimbursed under an accountable plan.
Your expenses from Form 2106 are claimed on line 21 of Schedule A. However, you can only deduct the amount that exceeds 2% of your adjusted gross income. For expenses for items such as safety equipment, uniforms, protective clothing and dues, for which you have not received reimbursement, these can be entered directly on line 21 of Schedule A (you do not have to use Form 2106).

Record keeping
It is imperative that you keep proper records to support all your employee business expenses, especially if you plan to deduct travel, entertainment, gift, local transportation, and car expenses. The records should be in written format, and you should retain your bills, receipts, and cancelled checks. If you are audited and cannot provide the records to support your deductions, it is quite likely that the IRS will disallow the deductions.

Documentary evidence ordinarily will be considered adequate if it shows the amount, date, place, and essential character of the expense. For example, a hotel receipt is enough to support expenses for business travel if it has all the following information: (a) the name and location of the hotel, (b) the dates you stayed there, (c) separate amounts for charges such as lodging, meals, and telephone calls. A restaurant receipt is enough to prove the expenses for a business meal if it has all of the following information: (a) the name of the restaurant, (b) the number of people served, and (c) the date and amount of the expense.

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Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7

Shoe Repairs And Several Other Things When I Was 7
My Dad repaired most of our shoes believe it or not, I can hardly believe it myself now. With 7 pairs of shoes always needing repairs I think he was quite clever to learn how to “Keep us in shoe Leather” to coin a phrase!

He bought several different sizes of cast iron cobbler’s “lasts”. Last, the old English “Laest” meaning footprint. Lasts were holding devices shaped like a human foot. I have no idea where he would have bought the shoe leather. Only that it was a beautiful creamy, shiny colour and the smell was lovely.

But I do remember our shoes turned upside down on and fitted into these lasts, my Dad cutting the leather around the shape of the shoe, and then hammering nails, into the leather shape. Sometimes we’d feel one or 2 of those nails poking through the insides of our shoes, but our dad always fixed it.

Hiking and Swimming Galas
Dad was a very outdoorsy type, unlike my mother, who was probably too busy indoors. She also enjoyed the peace and quiet when he took us off for the day!

Anyway, he often took us hiking in the mountains where we’d have a picnic of sandwiches and flasks of tea. And more often than not we went by steam train.

We loved poking our heads out of the window until our eyes hurt like mad from a blast of soot blowing back from the engine. But sore, bloodshot eyes never dampened our enthusiasm.

Dad was an avid swimmer and water polo player, and he used to take us to swimming galas, as they were called back then. He often took part in these galas. And again we always travelled by steam train.

Rowing Over To Ireland’s Eye
That’s what we did back then, we had to go by rowboat, the only way to get to Ireland’s eye, which is 15 minutes from mainland Howth. From there we could see Malahide, Lambay Island and Howth Head of course. These days you can take a Round Trip Cruise on a small cruise ship!

But we thoroughly enjoyed rowing and once there we couldn’t wait to climb the rocks, and have a swim. We picnicked and watched the friendly seals doing their thing and showing off.

Not to mention all kinds of birdlife including the Puffin.The Martello Tower was also interesting but a bit dangerous to attempt entering. I’m getting lost in the past as I write, and have to drag myself back to the present.

Fun Outings with The camera Club
Dad was also a very keen amateur photographer, and was a member of a camera Club. There were many Sunday photography outings and along with us came other kids of the members of the club.

And we always had great fun while the adults busied themselves taking photos of everything and anything, it seemed to us. Dad was so serious about his photography that he set up a dark room where he developed and printed his photographs.

All black and white at the time. He and his camera club entered many of their favourites in exhibitions throughout Europe. I’m quite proud to say that many cups and medals were won by Dad. They have been shared amongst all his grandchildren which I find quite special.

He liked taking portraits of us kids too, mostly when we were in a state of untidiness, usually during play. Dad always preferred the natural look of messy hair and clothes in the photos of his children.

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What Are The Greatest Changes In Shopping In Your Lifetime

What are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime? So asked my 9 year old grandson.

As I thought of the question the local Green Grocer came to mind. Because that is what the greatest change in shopping in my lifetime is.

That was the first place to start with the question of what are the greatest changes in shopping in your lifetime.

Our local green grocer was the most important change in shopping in my lifetime. Beside him was our butcher, a hairdresser and a chemist.

Looking back, we were well catered for as we had quite a few in our suburb. And yes, the greatest changes in shopping in my lifetime were with the small family owned businesses.

Entertainment While Shopping Has Changed
Buying butter was an entertainment in itself.
My sister and I often had to go to a favourite family grocer close by. We were always polite as we asked for a pound or two of butter and other small items.

Out came a big block of wet butter wrapped in grease-proof paper. Brought from the back of the shop, placed on a huge counter top and included two grooved pates.

That was a big change in our shopping in my lifetime… you don’t come across butter bashing nowadays.

Our old friendly Mr. Mahon with the moustache, would cut a square of butter. Lift it to another piece of greaseproof paper with his pates. On it went to the weighing scales, a bit sliced off or added here and there.

Our old grocer would then bash it with gusto, turning it over and over. Upside down and sideways it went, so that it had grooves from the pates, splashes going everywhere, including our faces.

My sister and I thought this was great fun and it always cracked us up. We loved it, as we loved Mahon’s, on the corner, our very favourite grocery shop.

Grocery Shopping
Further afield, we often had to go to another of my mother’s favourite, not so local, green grocer’s. Mr. McKessie, ( spelt phonetically) would take our list, gather the groceries and put them all in a big cardboard box.

And because we were good customers he always delivered them to our house free of charge. But he wasn’t nearly as much fun as old Mr. Mahon. Even so, he was a nice man.

All Things Fresh
So there were very many common services such as home deliveries like:

• Farm eggs

• Fresh vegetables

• Cow’s milk

• Freshly baked bread

• Coal for our open fires

Delivery Services
A man used to come to our house a couple of times a week with farm fresh eggs.

Another used to come every day with fresh vegetables, although my father loved growing his own.

Our milk, topped with beautiful cream, was delivered to our doorstep every single morning.

Unbelievably, come think of it now, our bread came to us in a huge van driven by our “bread-man” named Jerry who became a family friend.

My parents always invited Jerry and his wife to their parties, and there were many during the summer months. Kids and adults all thoroughly enjoyed these times. Alcohol was never included, my parents were teetotallers. Lemonade was a treat, with home made sandwiches and cakes.

The coal-man was another who delivered bags of coal for our open fires. I can still see his sooty face under his tweed cap but I can’t remember his name. We knew them all by name but most of them escape me now.

Mr. Higgins, a service man from the Hoover Company always came to our house to replace our old vacuum cleaner with an updated model.

Our insurance company even sent a man to collect the weekly premium.

People then only paid for their shopping with cash. This in itself has been a huge change in shopping in my lifetime.

In some department stores there was a system whereby the money from the cash registers was transported in a small cylinder on a moving wire track to the central office.

Some Of The Bigger Changes
Some of the bigger changes in shopping were the opening of supermarkets.

• Supermarkets replaced many individual smaller grocery shops. Cash and bank cheques have given way to credit and key cards.

• Internet shopping… the latest trend, but in many minds, doing more harm, to book shops.

• Not many written shopping lists, because mobile phones have taken over.

On a more optimistic note, I hear that book shops are popular again after a decline.

Personal Service Has Most Definitely Changed
So, no one really has to leave home, to purchase almost anything, technology makes it so easy to do online.
And we have a much bigger range of products now, to choose from, and credit cards have given us the greatest ease of payment.

We have longer shopping hours, and weekend shopping. But we have lost the personal service that we oldies had taken for granted and also appreciated.

Because of their frenetic lifestyles, I have heard people say they find shopping very stressful, that is grocery shopping. I’m sure it is when you have to dash home and cook dinner after a days work. I often think there has to be a better, less stressful way.

My mother had the best of both worlds, in the services she had at her disposal. With a full time job looking after 9 people, 7 children plus her and my dad, she was very lucky. Lucky too that she did not have 2 jobs.

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What We Have Here Is A Failure To Communicate

The results of this past election proved once again that the Democrats had a golden opportunity to capitalize on the failings of the Trump Presidency but, fell short of a nation wide mandate. A mandate to seize the gauntlet of the progressive movement that Senator Sanders through down a little over four years ago. The opportunities were there from the very beginning even before this pandemic struck. In their failing to educate the public of the consequences of continued Congressional gridlock, conservatism, and what National Economic Reform’s Ten Articles of Confederation would do led to the results that are playing out today.. More Congressional gridlock, more conservatism and more suffering of millions of Americans are the direct consequences of the Democrats failure to communicate and educate the public. Educate the public that a progressive agenda is necessary to pull the United States out of this Pandemic, and restore this nations health and vitality.

It was the DNC’s intent in this election to only focus on the Trump Administration. They failed to grasp the urgency of the times. They also failed to communicate with the public about the dire conditions millions have been and still are facing even before the Pandemic. The billions of dollars funneled into campaign coffers should have been used to educate the voting public that creating a unified coalition would bring sweeping reforms that are so desperately needed. The reality of what transpired in a year and a half of political campaigning those billions of dollars only created more animosity and division polarizing one extreme over another.

One can remember back in 1992 Ross Perot used his own funds to go on national TV to educate the public on the dire ramifications of not addressing our national debt. That same approach should have been used during this election cycle. By using the medium of television to communicate and educate the public is the most effective way in communicating and educating the public. Had the Biden campaign and the DNC used their resources in this way the results we ae seeing today would have not created the potential for more gridlock in our government. The opportunity was there to educate the public of safety protocols during the siege of this pandemic and how National Economic Reform’s Ten Articles of Confederation provides the necessary progressive reforms that will propel the United States out of the abyss of debt and restore our economy. Restoring our economy so that every American will have the means and the availability of financial and economic security.

The failure of the Democratic party since 2016 has been recruiting a Presidential Candidate who many felt was questionable and more conservative signals that the results of today has not met with the desired results the Democratic party wanted. Then again? By not fully communicating and not educating the public on the merits of a unified progressive platform has left the United States transfixed in our greatest divides since the Civil War. This writers support of Senator Bernie Sanders is well documented. Since 2015 he has laid the groundwork for progressive reforms. He also has the foundations on which these reforms can deliver the goods as they say. But, what did the DNC do, they purposely went out of their way to engineer a candidate who was more in tune with the status-quo of the DNC. They failed to communicate to the public in educating all of us on the ways our lives would be better served with a progressive agenda that was the benchmark of Senators Sanders Presidential campaign and his Our Revolution movement. And this is way there is still really no progress in creating a less toxic environment in Washington and around the country.

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